The 1930's


Economy

- Two recessions took place, one before stock market crash and the other after
- During first recession value of goods and services dropped by 42% and output fell by 9%
- The first recession lasted 13 months from May 1937 to June 1938
- Debtors couldn't pay off creditors because of the deflation
- Business failures very high
- Number of banks dropped by onNumne third
- High unemployment
http://ingrimayne.com/econ/EconomicCatastrophe/GreatDepression.html

The Great Depression in the United States
-The Great Depression started in 1929 when the stock market first crashed.
-This resulted with 40% of the paper value in common stock being wiped out.
-Politicians and leaders kept a positive attitude to try and save nation's economy.
-At this time factories started closing, banks failed and farm income dropped 50%.
-Unemployment rose too because by 1932 1 out of 4 Americans were left without jobs

War Transforms Nation's Economy
- Pearl Harbor attack in December 1941
- Near end of depression, unemployment remains high
- 1940 reports 11.1 percent of American households unemployed
- Nation changes from peaceful mindset to wartime ideaology
- 1942 president calls for 60,000 warplanes, 45,000 tanks, 20,000 anti-aircraft guns and 18 million tons of merchant shipping
- Labor, farms, mines, factories, trading houses, investment firms, communications, and cultural and educational institutions enlisted in war effort
- Nation gained huge amounts of money and industries to produce products for war
- New jobs offered to people resulted a massive population shift
- Draft brought over 15 million men to the army
- End of 1943 over 65 million men and women had war-related jobs
http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1569.html

Thirst for Change
- Roosevelt defeats Hoover for presidency in 1933 as change was demanded
- Recovery became main aim for Roosevelt to relieve the economic collapse
- Many bills passed by Roosevelt
- Federal Emergency Relief Administration = relief or wages on public work
- Civilian Conservation Corps = road building, forestry labor and flood control jobs offered to young men
- Works Progress Administration = in 1935 branched of 2 above agencies (FERA) (CCC)
- Emergency Banking Act = provided president with ability to open banks and regulate banking
- Law insures bank deposits up to $5,000 (later $10,000)
- Home Owners Loan Corp. = assisted homeowners
- Agricultural Adjustment Administration = gave subsidies to farmers who decrease acreage of certain crops
- Tennessee Valley Authority = exploits river basin resources with dams and hyfroelectric plants
- Huge progress made in labor issues
- National Recovery Administration = in 1933 tried to revive industry by raising wages and reducing work hours
- Wagner Act = in 1935 guaranteed employees right to negotiate with employers through union of their choosing
- Fair Labor Standards Act = in 1938 made 44 hour work week, time and a half overtime, made minimum wage 25 cents, banned work of kids under 16
- Social welfare also affected
-Social Security Laws = in 1935 provided pensions to aged, benefit payments to dependent mothers, crippled kids, and blind people
- Election of 1936 = showed nationwide appeal to Roosevelt as he won every state, except Vermont and Maine
http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1569.html


American Identity

- Although there was much hardship in the 1930s, there were many new ideas and creations such as:
  • Micky Mouse's first comic strip (1930)
  • Pluto is official named a planet (1930)
  • Chrysler Building opens (1930)
  • "The Star-Spangled Banner" becomes the official national anthem (1931)
  • Gambling is legalized in Nevada (1931)
  • Empire State Building opens (1931)
  • Amelia Earhart becomes first women to fly solo over the Atlantic (1932)
  • FM radio is patented (1933)
  • First feature-length animated movie, Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1935)
  • Hoover Dam completed (1936)
  • San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge opens to traffic (1936)
  • Toyota Motors becomes an independent company (1937)
- America was in a tough economic state, but many well-known, and still used, inventions were made.
http://www.spiritus-temporis.com/

Social Issues
- Presidents: Herbert Hoover (1929-1933)
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1933-1945)
- Herbert Hoover president in 1929, appeared to be shine of hope for America
- Hawley-Smoot Tariff passed in 1930, lifting tariffs to prohibitively high levels, depression spreads worldwide and lands catastrophe on international trade
- Economy worsens despite Hoover's promises and convincing otherwise
- Farm prices drop to record lows and 4,340,000 Americans unemployed, 32,000 businesses bankrupt, 5,000 banks failed
- Starvation was everywhere as people dined in soup kitchens and it was a depserate time for families
- Migration was forced as a drought ruined farms
- Reconstruction Finance Corporation launched by Hoover constructing roads, buildings and airports to increase credit facilities
- Strengthened banking system and signified the goverment's willingness to take responsibility to rescue the economy
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franklin_D._Roosevelt
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Herbert_Hoover


Culture

The War of the Worlds
- Aired on radio on October 30, 1938, over the Columbia Broadcasting System
- Directed and narrated by Orson Welles and gave him fame
- Based on the novel The War of the Worlds by H.G. Wells
- First two thirds of episode were simulated news bulletins
  • Full 60 minute show without commercial break which added dramatic effect
  • Many listeners thought it was an actual martian invasion
  • Others believed it was the Germans, not martians, that were invading
    • Panic broke out and listeners had to be reminded it was just a performance
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_War_of_the_Worlds_(radio)

Cost of Living in 1930
- New house...................$7,145
- House rent...................$15 per month
- Wages per year............$1,970
- Gallon of gas................10 cents
- Loaf of bread.................9 cents
- 1lb of hamburger meat...13 cents
- Quart of milk.................14 cents

- Nearly 13 million people were unemployed in 1932
- Times were rough and making money was hard
- Drought caused farmers to go into debt


Diversity

1930 Census
- Total U.S population 122,775,046
  • 88.7% White
  • 9.7% Negro
  • 1.2% Mexican
  • .3% Indian
  • .1% Chinese
  • .1% Japanese
http://www.genealogybranches.com/1930census.html

Life as a Minority
- Rise of the Klu Klux Klan and other racist organizations
- A
frican Americans lived in "ghetto's" of cities
ghettooo.jpg
New World attacked the widespread use of restrictive covenants in Seattle neighborhoods and mapped the city's Central District "ghetto."


-inter-racial marriage was prohibited in certain states
oh_hey.jpg
Karl Yoneda and fellow Communist Elaine Black lived together for several years in California, but were prevented from marrying because of that state's anti-miscegenation law.
-inter-racial marriage was prohibited in certain states
http://depts.washington.edu/labhist/cpproject/pinckney.htm


Economy

- Two recessions took place, one before stock market crash and the other after
- During first recession value of goods and services dropped by 42% and output fell by 9%
- The first recession lasted 13 months from May 1937 to June 1938
- Debtors couldn't pay off creditors because of the deflation
- Business failures very high
- Number of banks dropped by onNumne third
- High unemployment
http://ingrimayne.com/econ/EconomicCatastrophe/GreatDepression.html


Religion

- Resurgence of the church predicted
- Clergymen saw the depression as punishment from heaven for declining church membership
- Increased membership was anticipated but no religion's membership rose above 5%
- Majority of church members middle-aged women
- Many people had no place for religion in their lives, thought it was insignificant
- Lower classes returned to church while upper and middle class remained unmotivated to go
http://xroads.virginia.edu/~UG02/NewYorker/religion.html


Globalization

- America enters world stage behind Roosevelt
- Roosevelt realizes threat of other countries
- America loses connection to Great Britain for weapons and money after Hitler and Germany strike there
- Roosevelt recognizes that if Western Europe falls the U.S. would be soon to follow
- U.S. thrown into war mindset after having Pearl Harbor attacked by Japan
- Roosevelt makes orders for weapons and vehicles to prepare for war and establishes the draft to produce huge military
- New military jobs filled at the end of the depression
http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1569.html

War Looms
- Germany, Italy, and Japan enter world stage
- Germany follows Adolph Hitler
- Italy follows Benito Mussolini
- Japan follows many military leaders
- President warns people that they were potentially threatened by these imperial bullies
- France and Great Britain struck by Hitler and Germany, America lost suppliments of weapons and money
- If all of western Europe failed the U.S. knew they would fall to Germany as well
http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1569.html


Politics + Citizenship

- Herbert Hoover worsened depression, Roosevelt was the remedy to end it
- Depression was mainly caused by growing gap between the rich and the poor
- Farmers gradually declined until they were forced into debt
- Stock market new "get rich quick scheme" for rich people, only paper money though it had no value outside of market
- To try and reinvest in economy the government tried to gain people's trust back into the stock
- Stock market continued to spiral down during Hoover's term
- Tariffs and bills previously listed enacted by Hoover continued to worsen the economy
- Hoover's conservative attitude prevented him from trying to change matters during the depression and become involved with the citizens
- Roosevelt and the New Deal was the radical turnaround the U.S. needed
- New Deal revived economy: bring back banks, return faith in the government, and revitalize farming
- Roosevelt helped citizens as well by providing jobs for the unemployed, creating child labor laws, minimum wage, and introduced money lending
- U.S. finally considered healed at the end of WWII
http://www.angelfire.com/pa/indiglu/thepolitics.html


Essay Question:

In the beginning of the Great Depression Herbert Hoover proved he was not fit for the job of president. What did Teddy Roosevelt do to prove that he had what it took to take charge and revive the nation out of this economic slump?


1. Which of the following is not true about the Great Depression?
A. High unemployment
B. Number of banks drop by 1/3
C. 3 Recessions took place
D. Clergymen saw the depression as punishment from heaven for declining church membership

2. Who were the 2 presidents during the 1930's?
A. Herbert Hoover and Franklin Delano Roosevelt
B. Calvin Coolidge and Theodore Roosevelt
C. William Howard Taft and Herbert Hoover
D. Herbert Hoover and Theodore Roosevelt

3. What did Roosevelt realize that helped globalized the U.S?
A. The threat of other countries
B. If Western Europe falls the U.S. would be soon to follow
C. A & B
D. Neither

4. What was the effect of the depression?
A. Hoover's conservative attitude
B. Growing gap between the rich and the poor
C. Farmers gradually declined in to debt because of drought
D. All the above

5. What was the conditions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938?
A. 44 hour work week, time and a half overtime, made minimum wage 25 cents, banned work of kids under 16
B. Gave subsidies to farmers who decrease acreage of certain crops
C. Guaranteed employees right to negotiate with employers through union of their choosing
D. Provided pensions to aged, benefit payments to dependent mothers, crippled kids, and blind people