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CULTURE

Entertainment
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Jazz Age

The birthplace of Jazz was in New Orleans, Chicago, New York, and Kansas City. Jazz evolved in each city and the style of each musician changed with each city. "Jazz music had a profound effect on the literary world, which can be illustrated through the genesis of the genre of jazz poetry.
Fashion in the 1920s was another way in which jazz music influenced popular culture. The Women's Liberation Movement was furthered by jazz music, as it provided means of rebellion against set standards of society. The status of African Americans was elevated, due to the popularity of this distinctly African American music. For the first time in American history, what was previously considered "bottom culture" rose to the top and became a highly desired commodity in society." (1)
Jazz band
New Orleans-
-African Americans congregated to improvise and share music in Storyville
-By 1920, New Orleanian jazz musicians had already spent years spreading the "New Orleans sound” throughout the nation
-Jazz bands consisted of cornet, clarinet, and trombone
-Between 1917 and 1923, racism, prejudice, and violence against the African American population made jazz musicians leave New Orleans

Chicago-
-Dominated by gangsters, cabarets and dance clubs spread throughout Chicago
-Jazz music became directed towards the white middle class audience
-Clubs became segregated
-The first jazz radio broadcast was out of Chicago

New York-
-The New York Jazz scene was influenced by ragtime music
-Jazz was diverse and appealed to all of society
-Louis Armstrong moved to New York and created a new genre of jazz

-Edward "Duke" Kennedy Ellington

Kansas City-
-Jazz musicians moved to Kansas City after the mass exodus in New Orleans. The city became completely segregated
-Bands grew steadily in size until they were propelled towards the Big Bands of the 1930’s

(1) http://www.d.umn.edu/cla/faculty/tbacig/studproj/is3099/jazzcult/20sjazz/

Technology
- New technology allowed movies to have color and sounds
-This made the Hollywood movie industry more popular
-Automobiles, perfected by Henry Ford, began to be mass produced (2)
-Automobiles allowed for those who worked in citites to move farther away, creating the suburb
-The public could hear radio broadcasting for the first time (2)
-Dishwashers, electric toasters, freezers, and lawn mowers were also mass produces (3)

(2) http://library.thinkquest.org/C005846/categories/science/science.htm
(3) http://www.angelfire.com/co/pscst/tech.html

Flappers
-Did not feel they needed to conform to the rigid lifestyle of their mothers
-Style of the flappers focused less on the female form
-Women were able to do more manly activities this way
-Smoked, drank, gambled (4)
flappers.gif
Flappers of the 1920's
Flappers of the 1920's
(4) http://www.angelfire.com/co/pscst/flapper.html

Speakeasies & The Prohibition
-January 16, 1920,the 18th Amendment was put into action, banning all importing, exporting, transporting, selling, and manufacturing of liquor
-"Prohibition was meant to reduce the consumption of alcohol, seen by some as the devil’s advocate, and thereby reduce crime, poverty, death rates, and improve the economy and the quality of life" (5)
-"Speakeasies were formed in the 1920's as a means to get around the everyday hassle of law enforcement watching for people to violate the 18th Amendment"
-These underground clubs sold illegal alcohol
-Alcohol was being shipped into America using many innovative ways (6)
-Jazz bands and flappers could always be seen at speakeasies

(5) http://www.geocities.com/Athens/troy/4399/
(6) http://alliance.ed.uiuc.edu/cdrom/Hononegah/prohibition/speakeasies-s.htm

Economic Transformation

-"New business and production methods allowed manufacturers to make large profits which they plowed back into new factories and wage rises"
-Increased incomes led to a huge increase in consumer spending
-The average American was able to buy things that used to be considered only for the wealthy
-The rich got richer, allowing them to be able to spend more money
-" The Share Market climbed to dizzy heights as speculators bought on margin, and following well publicized successes, the general public joined in looking for easy profits"
-"Wall Street and the Banks grew fat on the fees involved in private equity buyouts and corporate mergers and paid large christmas bonuses to their staff
-Business ethics collapsed and corruption was widespread at high levels in politics and business, leading to some high profile trials"
stock_market_crash.jpg Effects of the Stock Market crash in 1929
Boom to Bust
-"The magical prosperity vanished almost overnight as people lost confidence following the Stock Market crash, and despite everything that governments could do, America and much of the world slipped into a harsh depression that only ended ten years later with the start of World War 2" (7)

(7) http://www.1920-30.com/business/

Business Failures

Number of business failures in 1926: 22,000
Number of banks in the United States, 1921: 31,000
Number of bank failures, 1921-1929: 7,000 (8)

(8) http://bss.sfsu.edu/tygiel/hist427/texts/1920seconomy.htm


Politics and Citizenship

The period between the 2 world wars was characterized by world-wide tensions and saw the rise of mass movements such as communism, fascism, and National Socialism. (9)

-AMERICAN PRESIDENTS 1920-30
· 28. Woodrow Wilson (1913-1921)
· 29. Warren G. Harding (1921-1923)
· 30. Calvin Coolidge (1923-1929)
· 31. Herbert Hoover (1929-1933)

Election of 1920
-The election of 1920 was based on the aftermath of WWI
-“
On June 8, 1920, the Republican National Convention meeting in Chicago nominated Warren G. Harding, an Ohio newspaper editor and United States Senator, to run for president with Calvin Coolidge, governor of Massachusetts, as his running mate” (9)
-Democrats nominated Ohio newspaper editor James M. Cox and Franklin D. Roosevelt as running mate
-Warren G. Harding was elected
-He faced many domestic and international problems that tested his leadership

Election of 1924
-“The U.S. presidential election of 1924 was won by incumbent President Calvin Coolidge in a landslide as he presided over a booming economy at home and no visible crises abroad” (9)
-Coolidge won by a landslide

Election of 1928
-Republican Herbert Hoover against Democrat Alfred E. Smith
-“The Republicans were identified with the booming economy of the 1920s and Smith, a Roman Catholic, suffered politically from anti-Catholic prejudice” (9)
-Herbert Hoover wins the election by a wide margin (9)

(9) http://www.1920-30.com/politics/


Warren G. Harding
-“Once in office, Harding admitted to his close friends that the job was beyond him… Harding appointed to his cabinet included Charles Evans Hughes as secretary of state, Andrew Mellon as secretary of the treasury, and Herbert Hoover as secretary of commerce. But he also surrounded himself with dishonest cheats, who came to be known as "the Ohio gang."”
-Conservative on trade and economic issues
-Favored pro-business policies
-Tax cuts for the rich, stopped anti-trust actions, and opposed organized labor
-Concerned with securing foreign markets for wealthy American banks
-“Most historians regard Harding as the worst President in the nation's history. In the end, it was not his corrupt friends, but rather, Harding's own lack of vision that was most responsible for the tarnished legacy” (10)

(10) http://millercenter.org/academic/americanpresident/harding/essays/biography/1

Calvin Coolidge

-Took over office for one year for Warren G. Harding after his death before becoming reelected
-“Coolidge had emerged unscathed from the scandals that plagued the Harding administration, earning a reputation for being honest, direct, and hardworking”
-Went along with the Immigration Act of 1924, limiting the number of eastern and southern Europeans allowed in the U.S, excluding the Japanese altogether
-Tax cuts for the rich (11)

(11) http://millercenter.org/academic/americanpresident/coolidge/essays/biography/1

Herbert Hoover

-“
His platform rejected farm subsidies, supported prohibition, pledged lower taxes, and promised more of the same prosperity Americans had enjoyed during the Coolidge years”
-Favored volunteering
-Thought volunteering could uphold the “American character”
-Presided during the Great Depression of the 1930’s (12)

(12) http://millercenter.org/academic/americanpresident/hoover/essays/biography/1



Globalization

-With new technology, the U.S did experience some globalization, but this period had more deglobalization then globalization
-Oil companies begin to discover and exploit the oil fields in the middle east
-Foreign banks set up in U.S .(13)

(13) http://truthinprophecy.com/timeline/1920.php



American Identity:

The roaring twenties was a time of conservism and great social change. From the world of fashion to the world to politics, forces clashed to produce the most explosive decade of the century.

roaring20s.jpg
The Roaring Twenties (4)
(4) http://www.sbhsd.k12.ca.us/sbhslib/reference/roaring20s.jpg


People:

Herbert Hoover:
- During WWI organized war effort and efficiently gave troops supplies and good transportation home.
- Presidency marked most important achievements and failures.

Henry Ford:
- Great achievements in automobile industry.
- Also great achievements in labor practices and industry standards.
- Henry Ford was also the first person to materialize the assembly line,

The American identity was also shaped by events that capitalized during the 1920’s such as: Sacco and Vanzetti Case, and the Stock Market crash

Events:

The Stock Market Crash:
- It brought an end to both the 20’s and the Great Depression.
- The stock market was going through the roof and the United States seemed to have the formula for limitless prosperity.
- The stock market crash in turn made a downward spiral for the American economy.

stock-market-crash-1929.jpg

The Stock Market Crash 1929 (3)

(3) http://greatdepressionhistory.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/11/stock-market-crash-1929.jpg

Sacco and Vanzetti Case:
- The anarchist circle created a defense to try to free their comrades.
- The two Italian people involved were Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti.
- To avoid being arrested they went down to Bridgewater, Massachusetts to remove anarchist literature to avoid being arrested.
- If the fact that they were anarchists was bad, the fact that they are foreigners makes it worse.
- In the late 1910's to the early 1920's the immigrant anarchist’s movement had become violently opposed to the conservative government. (1)

http://www.angelfire.com/co/pscst/

American Diversity


The Jazz Age and Harlem Renaissance:


- In New York City in the 1920’s there were approximately 100,000 African Americans in Harlem
- Harlem in turned became the biggest black communities in the world.
- The white community flocked to cotton club in Harlem and night clubs in Chicago
- Marcus Garvey a notorious leader for black movement started the United Negro Improvement Association (UNIA).
- He promoted “Back to Africa” movement and resettlement of African Americans. (2)

(2) http://1920sgirls.tripod.com/popculture.html

Literature:

- World War I caused a stir against traditional values established new codes, traditions, and culture.
- African American writers during the Harlem Renaissance produced a rich body of literature including poetry, fiction, drama, and essays. (2)

(2) http://1920sgirls.tripod.com/popculture.html.


Religion:

…During the 1920’s
- Religion during the 1920’s did not affect the social dance scene very much.
- During the 20’s, people had some sense of freedom, and were not in any shape bounded by their religion.
o As it was evident that with the flappers that they were going to their regular standards and change the rules.
- This time period was not affected by religion it is where people made their own rules and styles of life.
- During the 1920s the United States began to confine immigrants due to cultural and economical purposes. (5)

(5) http://my.ilstu.edu/~lmerri/uhigh/1920's/culture%20and%20religion.htm



Multiple Choices:

1.) What were the four main birthplaces of jazz music?
2.) Flappers participated in…?
a. Smoking
b. Drinking
c. Gambling
d. Dancing
e. All of the above

3.) The aftermath of WWI led to?
a. Election of 1924
b. Election of 1920
c. Election of 1928

4.) The Stock Market Crash was…?
a. An end to the 20’s and the great Depression
b. A downward spiral for the United States
c. A+B

5.) True or False. Religion affected the 1920’s time period.



Essential Question
It what ways did the 1920's affect not only the 1930's, but every decade following it?