While reading this page keep these essential questions in mind.

1. American Identity: How did this decade address what it means to be an American?
2. American Diversity: What were the stories of people from different ethnic backgrounds?
3. Culture: How did the era contribute to American Culture?
4. Economic Transformations: What economic circumstances helped or hurt America?
5. Religion: How did religious beliefs shape the period?
6. Politics and Citizenship: How did political leadership contribute to the period and what was its impact on the citizens?
7. Globalization: How did America move closer to globalization

Woman's Suffrage

  • Began an the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848

  • Women's rights leaders included: Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Martha C, Wright, and Mary Ann McClintock

  • Developed Declaration on Principles, modeled after the Declaration of Independence, to include womens rights.

  • They stated that women had the right to preach, to be educated, to teach, and to earn a living.

  • "The delegates passed a resolution stating that 'it is the sacred duty of the women of this country to secure to themselves their sacred right to the elective franchise.' With these words the struggle began in earnest to win full voting rights for women in the United States" (1).

Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Elizabeth Cady Stanton

  • In 1890 the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA) was formed with Elizabeth Cady Stanton as its first president.

  • They fought for an amendment to the Constitution and state constitutions concurrently, to give women the right to vote.

  • The Opposition felt that women should be involved in their domestic duties rather than becoming involved in politics, that should be left for the men.

  • Even other women were against the right to vote like Josephine Dodge who formed the National Association Opposed to Woman Suffrage in 1911.

  • She felt that women should influence politics from behind the scenes through their husbands., as well as "create chaos by meddling in matters that were beyond their understanding" (1).

  • Eventually NAWSA was dissolved after achieving its goal in 1920 for woman's suffrage and was replaced with the National League of Women Voters. Its chief goal was to educate women about voting.

  • 19th Amendment "Section 1: The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Section 2: Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation" (2).

  • Ultimately the National League of Women Voters was transformed into the League of Women Voters, which still operates under the same name today.

Woman's Suffrage addresses what it means to be an American. Woman's suffrage redefined that American's are created equal, including women. Woman's suffrage created and led to equality among men and women, and it also influenced the civil rights movement for African Americans. Furthermore, politics and citizenship evolved in the United States as Women became more involved in politics. They were first able to vote in the 1920 presidential election between William Gamaliel Harding and James Middleton Cox.

1. http://www.essortment.com/all/womenssuffrage_rcfa.htm

2. http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/conlaw/nineteentham.htm

Presidents of the 1910s

William Howard Taft

President William Howard Taft (1909-1913)
President William Howard Taft (1909-1913)

  • Served both as the 27th President of the United States and as the 10th Chief Justice of the Untied States

  • He was considered a Progressive President, but didn't follow after Theodore Roosevelt.

  • When Theodore Roosevelt saw this through Taft's presidency he formed his own progressive party to run for president in 1912 known as the Progressive Bull Moose Party. He would go on to split the Republican vote with William Taft, and Woodrow Wilson would be elected into the presidency(4).

  • Taft also proposed the 16th Ammendment which states "The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several states, and without regard to any census or enumeration" (3).

  • When Theodore Roosevelt saw this through Taft's presidency he formed his own progressive party to run for president in 1912 known as the Progressive Bull Moose Party. He would go on to split the Republican vote with William Taft, and Woodrow Wilson would be elected into the presidency (4).

Thomas Woodrow Wilson

President Woodrow Wislon (1913-1921) at the 1915 World Series
President Woodrow Wislon (1913-1921) at the 1915 World Series

  • He was a democratic president

  • He was a Presbyterian and believed God would guide his course.

  • Underwood Simmons Tariff cut the tariff down to embrace globalization in the United States, and to hurt trusts as well.

  • Federal Reserve Act created 12 regional banks and it gave out loans and held assets in reserve.

  • Looking at the religious aspect of United States History, Taft appointed the first Jewish Supreme Court Justice of the United States, Louis Brandeis (5).

  • His slogan for reelection in 1916 was "He Kept us Out of the War" (5).

  • Eventually Wilson would propose to declare war on Germany and Congress would overwhelmingly approve because of such events as the sinking of the Lusitania and the Zimmerman Letter where Germany looked to make an alliance with Mexico to take out the United States.

  • Propaganda at the time of the War was led by George Creel in the Creel Commission, where the committee strived to foster support for the war (5).

Uncle Sam
Uncle Sam
Liberty Bonds
Liberty Bonds

  • As one of the Big Four at the Peace Conference in Versailles, Woodrow Wilson presented his famous 14 points as he looked to minimize war recuperation and prevent future wars.

  • His first 13 points were disregard as they were to forgiving on the Germans whom most believed had to pay severely, but the conference did adopt Wilson's Fourteenth point, which was to establish a league of Nations to ensure War wouldn't happen again (5).

  • Wilson failed to get the Treaty of Versailles approved by congress, and it was unpopular in the United States, as it could involve the United States in Future European affairs (5).

  • "There is an organized propaganda against the League of Nations and against the treaty proceeding from exactly the same sources that the organized propaganda proceeded from which threatened this country here and there with disloyalty, and I want to say, I cannot say too often, any man who carries a hyphen about with him carries a dagger that he is ready to plunge into the vitals of this Republic whenever he gets ready" (6).

  • Eventually Warren Harding would be elected as the next president.

3. http://www.law.cornell.edu/constitution/constitution.amendmentxvi.html


5. http://millercenter.org/academic/americanpresident/wilson/essays/biography/1

6. http://books.google.com/books?id=Fo1jblFR3BcC&pg=PA74&lpg=PA74&dq=%22There+is+an+organized+propaganda+against+the+League+of+Nations+and+against+the+treaty+proceeding+from+exactly+the+same+sources+that+the+organized+propaganda+proceeded+from+which+threatened+this+country+here+and+there+with+disloyalty,+and+I+want+to+say,+I&source=bl&ots=weB16DgzWQ&sig=hZOMdKl8w2kFsdqPBloyPQ5KFzQ&hl=en&ei=uT34Sc_OCKTQMruapMgP&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1

World War One

Start of the Great War:
The start of World War 1 began with the assassination of Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand by a Serbian nationalist group called "The Black Hand." In response to the assassination the Austrian government composed a list of unreasonable terms for the Serbians to avoid Austrian invasion. Serbia then called on Russia to defend it and Austria called the military power Germany to their aid. Through a system of alliances the countries Britain and France came to Russia's side known as the Triple Entente. The alliance between Germany, Austria Hungary, and Italy was called the triple alliance.

Triple Alliance
Austria Hungary
Triple Entente
external image german-soldiers.jpg

American Entrance into the War:
America was drawn into the fray for two main reasons which include the Zimmerman Note and the destruction of American shipping to Europe by the Germans. The Zimmerman note was a telegram sent by the Germans to the Mexican government stating that if Mexico attacked the U.S. after the war Mexico would be awarded all the land lost during the Mexican War. The other main reason was the sinking of the British ship "The Lusitania" in which 128 Americans were killed. There is speculation that the ship was actually smuggling arms to Europe but there is no proof.
America played a rather small part in the war compared to the European countries that had been slugging it out for years before America entered the war. America entered the war on April 6, 1917 and originally America's standing army was very small. Due to recruiting tactics America was sending over 10,000 new soldiers to France everyday. This was the breaking point for the Germans they had miscalculated America's ability to mobilize and found themselves overwhelmed with this new constant supply of soldiers flooding the front lines. On November 11, 1918, at 11 a.m. an armistice (cease fire) was signed with Germany ending the bloodshed. On June 28, 1919 the formal state of war between Germany ended with the signing of The Treaty of Versailles. All the countries who had fought against Germany and her allies were invited to decide the fate of Germany. Ironically the country Germany itself was not invited to the convention to try and negotiate the terms of the treaty and Germany was given a punishing set of commands that they had to agree to. The Germans were forced to accept full responsibility for the war, pay war reparations, forbidden to have a standing army, and surrender planes, railroads, guns and ammunition, artillery pieces, and land surrounding Germany. Effectively they took away Germany's ability to be an invading army. The cruel terms set destroyed the German economy and set the stage for the rise of a dictator and World War 2.

external image wwi19.gif

America's Home Front:
During the great war the home front in America was changing drastically compared to previous years. Due to the absence of men women began taking on more responsibility than in previous years. With the new found confidence that women are just as capable as men a strong push for woman's suffrage and woman's rights was a direct response to the new confidence. Acts put in place by the government were Constitutionally tested and people felt that their rights as American citizens were being violated. The Espionage Act of 1917 restricted the people of the U.S. from speaking out against the war. The government justified this act by claiming that speaking out against the war caused panic among the populations. America reacted negatively by accusing the government of taking away the people's Constitutional rights. A strong sense of Nationalism spread throughout America and many traditions associated with German culture were altered to become American customs. German culture and German Americans were discriminated against and nationalism became stronger.

Culture Shifts in America:
The culture of America changed and made Americans feel more able and confident as a world power. They took a relatively small army and mobilized the entire country into a strong fighting force that overwhelmed the Germans. American also realized the vast amount of resources they had at their disposal and America as an effective military power was born.


Progressivism- "Of The People, By The People, For The People"
Progressivism- a political or social term referring to the belief that change is needed as opposed to those who want things to stay the way they are, and the government should be focused on the common man.
  • Some Political Parties, Democratic, Republican, Bull Moose Republicans (Headed by Teddy Roosevelt)

  • These parties started to look for social, political, environmental, and economic reform.

  • One major focus was Trustbusting- putting a stop to monopolies

Leading Progressive Figures= Williams Jennings Browning, Woodrow Wilson, Theodore Roosevelt, and Robert La Follette.
Bryans advocated for the Populist movement. Populism was a party for the people and was against the gold standard.
Muckrakers were journalists dedicated to uncovering scandals and decreasing corruption.
The Progressive Presidents were, Woodrow Wilson, William Howard Taft, and Theodore Roosevelt.

Major Advances
Automobile Assembly Line, by Henry Ford
Stainless Steel, Harry Brearly
First Pop-up Toaster, Charles P. Strite
The Tank, The Military
Radio Broadcasts
"Oliver Twist", First U.S film
Jazz starts to become popular

Short Answer

How did America's foreign policy change after World War 1?

Multiple Choice__**

1. What major event led to Americans joining World War 1?

a. Sinking of the Lusitania

b. The assassination of Franz Ferdinand

c. Zimmerman Letter

d a and c

e a,c, and b

2. Which of the following did the Woman's Suffrage movement influence?

a. World War 1

b. Election of 1916

c. Civil Rights Movement

d. a and c

e. a,b, and c

3. Which of the following documents did woman leaders at the Seneca Falls convention model their "Declaration of Principles" after?

a. Treat of Paris

b. The Constitution

c. Treaty of Versailles

d. The Declaration of Independence

e. None of the Above

4. Which of President Woodrow Wilson's 14 points were adopted in the Treaty of Versailles?

a. Draw down post war boundaries similar to previous war boundaries.

b. Freedom of the Seas

c. Establish a League of Nations

d. a and b

e. none of the above

5. True or False, Congress Overwhelmingly approved the Treaty of Versailles.